Background: Unexpected donor-derived transmission of infections is rare, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to provide an overview of published cases on unexpected infectious transmissions. Methods: We systematically reviewed all published evidence describing any unexpected donor-derived viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections in kidney transplant recipients. Results: In all, 119 studies (case reports [n = 36], case series [n = 78], cohort studies [n = 2], and case-control studies [n = 3]) involving 139 donors and 207 kidney recipients were included. Donor-derived viral (n = 116, 56.0%) infections were most prevalent, followed by bacterial (32, 15.5%), fungal (32, 15.5%), and parasitic (27, 13.0%) infections. The most commonly reported viral infections were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (n = 20, 9.7%), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV) (n = 20, 9.7%), and West Nile virus (WNV) (n = 13, 6.3%). The most frequent bacterial infections were caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (10, 4.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9, 4.3%). Candida species were the most frequent causes of fungal donor-derived infections (8, 3.9%). Toxoplasma gondii accounted for seven (3.4%) cases of transmitted parasitic infections. Patients with rabies experienced the highest probability of recipient death from virus-related complications at 90.0%, within a median time of 2.8 months after transplantation. Conclusion: The frequency of donor-derived infectious transmission appears low in kidney transplantation, with viral transmissions being most commonly reported overall.
- donor outcomes
- kidney transplantation