Polymer nanostructures can be designed with specific properties and functions, such as controlled shape, size, chemical composition, and adaptive ability to change shape or size in response to environmental cues. Precise control to organize polymer chains into uniform nonspherical symmetric and asymmetric nanostructures and at scale remains a synthetic challenge. Here, by using the temperature-directed morphology transformation (TDMT) method we show through a systematic organization of polymer chains the synthesis of well-defined asymmetric (i.e., tadpole) and symmetric (i.e., worm) nanostructures in water at high polymer concentrations. This method further allowed the production of tadpoles with controlled and uniform tail lengths, ranging from 200 to 800 nm. The organization of chains could be driven by environmental conditions to produce adaptive nanostructure systems.