Use and reporting of experience-based codesign studies in the healthcare setting: a systematic review

Theresa Green, Ann Bonner, Laisa Teleni, Natalie Bradford, Louise Purtell, Clint Douglas, Patsy Yates, Margaret Macandrew, Hai Yen Dao, Raymond Javan Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


Background Experience-based codesign (EBCD) is an approach to health service design that engages patients and healthcare staff in partnership to develop and improve health services or pathways of care. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the use (structure, process and outcomes) and reporting of EBCD in health service improvement activities. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library) were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published from database inception to August 2018. Search terms identified peer-reviewed English language qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies that underwent independent screening by two authors. Full texts were independently reviewed by two reviewers and data were independently extracted by one reviewer before being checked by a second reviewer. Adherence to the 10 activities embedded within the eight-stage EBCD framework was calculated for each study. Results We identified 20 studies predominantly from the UK and in acute mental health or cancer services. EBCD fidelity ranged from 40% to 100% with only three studies satisfying 100% fidelity. Conclusion EBCD is used predominantly for quality improvement, but has potential to be used for intervention design projects. There is variation in the use of EBCD, with many studies eliminating or modifying some EBCD stages. Moreover, there is no consistency in reporting. In order to evaluate the effect of modifying EBCD or levels of EBCD fidelity, the outcomes of each EBCD phase (ie, touchpoints and improvement activities) should be reported in a consistent manner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-76
Number of pages13
JournalBMJ Quality and Safety
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • health services research
  • healthcare quality improvement
  • implementation science
  • quality improvement methodologies


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