Purpose: We evaluated the Mollon-Reffin Minimalist (M-R M) color vision test to determine how successfully young children can perform the task and to compare success rates with the American Optical Hardy Rand Rittler (HRR) test and a preferential-looking type test based on the F2 plates (the Pease-Allen color test [PACT]). Methods: Participants included 146 children (aged 3-10 years) and 32 older subjects (aged 11-39 years). The M-R M test uses 3 series of colored caps coinciding with protan, deutan, and tritan confusion axes, with 6 saturations along each axis. The observer must identify a single colored cap from gray caps of varying lightness. The PACT test consists of 2 cards with targets for detecting red-green and blue-yellow color deficiencies. The tester judges the location of the target on the basis of the child's looking and/or pointing responses. The HRR was performed according to standard instructions, although a more flexible scoring protocol was also used. Results: A significant difference in the children's performance between the "test" item of the 3 tasks emerged (Cochran Q test, P.001): all children successfully completed the M-R M, 90% successfully completed the PACT, and 88% successfully completed the HRR. Few errors were made on the M-R M red-green series, even among children aged 3 to 4years, although errors were made with the least saturated blue-yellow cap at all ages. Recommendations are made for the use of the M-R M with children. Conclusions: The M-RM test can be performed by young children and may prove to be especially useful for detecting and monitoring acquired color vision defects.