Using Balanced Time Perspective to Explain Well-Being and Planning in Retirement

Anna Mooney, Joanne Earl, Carl Mooney, Hazel Bateman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    30 Citations (Scopus)


    The notion of whether people focus on the past, present or future, and how it shapes their behavior is known as Time Perspective. Fundamental to the work of two of its earliest proponents, Zimbardo and Boyd (2008), was the concept of balanced time perspective and its relationship to wellness. A person with balanced time perspective can be expected to have a flexible temporal focus of mostly positive orientations (past-positive, present-hedonistic, and future) and much less negative orientations (past-negative and present-fatalistic). This study measured deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP: Zhang et al., 2013) in a sample of 243 mature adults aged 45 to 91 years and explored relationships to Retirement Planning, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Positive Mood, and Negative Mood. Results indicate that DBTP accounts for unexplained variance in the outcome measures even after controlling for demographic variables. DBTP was negatively related to Retirement Planning and Positive Mood and positively related to Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Negative Mood. Theoretical and practical implications regarding balanced time perspective are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1781
    Number of pages7
    JournalFrontiers in Psychology
    Issue numberOCT
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2017


    • Balanced time perspective
    • Planning behavior
    • Retirement
    • Time perspective
    • Well-being


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