The increasing sophistication of vaccine adjuvant design has been driven by improved understanding of the importance of nanoscale features of adjuvants to their immunological function. Newly available advanced nanomanufacturing techniques now allow very precise control of adjuvant particle size, shape, texture, and surface chemistry. Novel adjuvant concepts include self-assembling particles and targeted immune delivery. These individual concepts can be combined to create a single integrated vaccine nanoparticle-combining antigen, adjuvants, and DC-targeting elements. In the process, the concept of an adjuvant has broadened to include not only immune-stimulatory substances but also any design features that enhance the immune response against the relevant vaccine antigen. The modern definition of an adjuvant includes not only classical immune stimulators but also any aspects of particle size, shape, and surface chemistry that enhance vaccine immunogenicity. It even includes purely physical processes such as texturing of particle surfaces to maximize immunogenicity. Looking forward, adjuvants will increasingly be seen not as separate add-on items but as wholly integrated elements of a complete vaccine delivery package. Hence, vaccine systems will increasingly approach the complexity and sophistication of pathogens themselves, incorporating highly specific particle properties, contents, and behaviors, all designed to maximize immune system recognition and drive the immune response in the specific direction that affords maximal protection.
|Title of host publication||Micro- and Nanotechnology in Vaccine Development|
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 29 Sep 2016|
- Immune stimulation
- Immune targeting
- Vaccine design
- Viral-like particle