Background: Because of the potential risk of hemorrhage or ischemia, the presence of vascular anomalies adds to the surgical challenge in pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Objective: To analyze the literature concerning the influence of aberrant peripancreatic arterial anatomy on outcomes of PD. Materials and Methods: A systematic search using Medline and Embase for the years 1950-2008. Results: The most common aberration in hepatic arterial anatomy is the replaced right hepatic artery. Other vascular abnormalities such as replaced common hepatic artery with a hepatomesenteric trunk and celiomesenteric trunk and arcuate ligament syndrome leading to celiac artery stenosis are also associated with post-PD complications. Damage to the biliary branches of the hepatic arteries increases the risk of postoperative biliary anastomotic leak. Conclusion: The most common abnormalities of the hepatic vasculature include a replaced RHA, replaced LHA, and accessory RHA or LHA. Celiac artery stenosis secondary to median arcuate ligament compression may also be encountered. Every attempt should be made to preserve the aberrant vessel unless their resection is oncologically indicated. Routine preoperative computerized tomography angiography helps to identify the hepatic vascular anatomy and thereby prepares the surgeon to better deal with the vascular anomalies intraoperatively. Increased awareness of the vascular anatomy would decrease the chances of intraoperative vascular injury and consequent postoperative complications such as biliary anastomotic leaks as well as the chances of postoperative hemorrhage.