An analytical solution is developed in this paper to investigate the vertical time-harmonic response of a pipe pile embedded in a viscoelastic saturated soil layer. The wave propagation in the saturated soil is simulated by Biot's 3D poroelastic theory and that in the pipe pile is simulated by 1D elastodynamic theory. Potential functions are applied to decouple the governing equations of the soil. The analytical solutions of the outer and inner soil in frequency domain are obtained by the method of separation of variables. The vertical response of the pipe pile is then obtained based on the continuity assumption of the displacement and stress between the pipe pile and both the outer and inner soil. The solution is compared with existing solutions to verify the validity. Numerical examples are presented to analyze the vibration characteristics of the pile.