Virtual Twins: Understanding the Data Required for Model-Informed Precision Dosing

Thomas M. Polasek, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have progressed stratified dosing in populations by accounting for attributes that affect pharmacokinetics. However, application of PBPK for model‐informed precision dosing in individual patients requires creating “virtual twins” (VTs) informed by data beyond population demographics. Some data for VTs come from routine blood tests while others are uncommon (e.g., enzyme biomarkers). Rapid growth in “liquid biopsy” technologies herald a new era where individual variations in pharmacokinetics are considered more fully.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-745
Number of pages4
JournalClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models
  • pharmacokinetics
  • MIPD (model‐informed precision dosing)


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