Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have progressed stratified dosing in populations by accounting for attributes that affect pharmacokinetics. However, application of PBPK for model‐informed precision dosing in individual patients requires creating “virtual twins” (VTs) informed by data beyond population demographics. Some data for VTs come from routine blood tests while others are uncommon (e.g., enzyme biomarkers). Rapid growth in “liquid biopsy” technologies herald a new era where individual variations in pharmacokinetics are considered more fully.
- Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models
- MIPD (model‐informed precision dosing)