To articulate the components of educational interventions that help children learn about managing their asthma, cystic fibrosis, or diabetes, relevant to their age/developmental status.
A systematic review of chronic condition self-management (CCSM) educational interventions that included age/developmentally appropriate components, published before 27 January 2018, including evidence level and quality assessments. Teaching approaches were extracted and translated into practical components.
Twenty education interventions were identified, published across 30 studies. Most studies (n = 20/30) were based on the theories of Piaget and Bandura. Similar teaching approaches were used across conditions, incorporating sequenced curriculum and a variety of active elements. Age/developmentally appropriate interventions resulted in improvements in the CCSM capabilities of children. Outcomes were improved when compared with usual care. For very young children, educational interventions were directed at parents/families. As children reached school age, interventions increasingly became child-focused, promoting autonomy. Integrated play and reinforcement were common. Adolescent interventions placed greater emphasis on communication, problem-solving, and role division.
Eight key components were identified: structured and sequenced curricula; reinforcement; active participation; collaboration; autonomy; feedback; multiple exposures; and, problem-solving. Different components are relevant to specific life stages.
Clinicians require age/developmentally appropriate practical education tools to provide effective paediatric health care.
- Cystic fibrosis
- Teaching approaches