What are the essential components to implement individual-focused interventions for well-being and burnout in critical care healthcare professionals? A realist expert opinion

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to determine what, how, and under what circumstances individual-focused interventions improve well-being and decrease burnout for critical care healthcare professionals. Method: This realist approach, expert opinion interview, was guided by the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards II (RAMESES II) guidelines. Semi-structured interviews with critical care experts were conducted to ascertain current and nuanced information on a set of pre-defined individual interventions summarized from a previous umbrella review. The data were appraised, and relationships between context, mechanisms, and outcomes were extracted, which created theory prepositions that refined the initial program theory. Results: A total of 21 critical care experts were individually interviewed. By understanding the complex interplay between organizational and personal factors that influenced intervention uptake, it was possible to decipher the most likely implementable intervention for critical care healthcare professionals. The expert recommendation suggested that interventions should be evidence-based, accessible, inclusive, and collaborative, and promote knowledge and skill development. Unique mechanisms were also required to achieve the positive effects of the intervention due to the presence of contextual factors within critical care settings. Mechanisms identified in this study included the facilitation of self-awareness, self-regulation, autonomy, collaboration, acceptance, and inclusion (to enable a larger reach to different social groups). Conclusion: This validation of a theoretical understanding of intervention that addressed well-being and burnout in critical care healthcare professionals by expert opinion demonstrated essential mechanisms and contextual factors to consider when designing and implementing interventions. Future research would benefit by piloting individual interventions and integrating these new theoretical findings to understand better their effectiveness for future translation into the “real-world” setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number991946
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • burnout—professional
  • critical care
  • healthcare professionals
  • individual interventions
  • well-being (I31)

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