White sharks exploit the sun during predatory approaches

Charles Huveneers, Dirk Holman, Rachel Robbins, Andrew Fox, John A. Endler, Alex Taylor

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    31 Citations (Scopus)


    There is no conclusive evidence of any nonhuman animal using the sun as part of its predation strategy. Here, we show that the world’s largest predatory fish—the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)—exploits the sun when approaching baits by positioning the sun directly behind them. On sunny days, sharks reversed their direction of approach along an east-west axis from morning to afternoon but had uniformly distributed approach directions during overcast conditions. These results show that white sharks have sufficient behavioral flexibility to exploit fluctuating environmental features when predating. This sun-tracking predation strategy has a number of potential functional roles, including improvement of prey detection, avoidance of retinal overstimulation, and predator concealment.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)562-570
    Number of pages9
    JournalAmerican Naturalist
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • Concealment
    • Hiding strategy
    • Behavioral flexibility
    • Predation strategy
    • Prey detection
    • Carcharodon carcharias


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