Wildlife forensic science is a relatively new field in both research and its use in criminal investigations. It should be acknowledged from the outset that wildlife forensic science encompasses many areas of the analytical sciences and each plays a potentially crucial role. This book is focused on the use of DNA in wildlife forensic science while noting the importance of other areas of biological and chemical testing. It is also focused primarily on mammalian and avian DNA typing, again noting the importance and relevance of other species. The book is aimed at those with an interest in DNA for human identification who are considering developing a wildlife forensic science capability. It is also aimed at those with little DNA knowledge but share an interest in wildlife criminal investigations. Only a scant knowledge of DNA is assumed in reading this book and every effort is made to explain terms and concepts.