Working Towards Eye Health Equity for Indigenous Australians with Diabetes

Jose J. Estevez, Natasha J. Howard, Jamie E. Craig, Alex Brown

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
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    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) poses significant challenges to individuals and broader society, much of which is borne by disadvantaged and marginalised population groups including Indigenous people. The increasing prevalence of T2DM among Indigenous people has meant that rates of diabetes-related complications such as blindness from end-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) continue to be important health concerns. Australia, a high-income and resource-rich country, continues to struggle to adequately respond to the health needs of its Indigenous people living with T2DM. Trends among Indigenous Australians highlight that the prevalence of DR has almost doubled over two decades, and the prevalence of diabetes-related vision impairment is consistently reported to be higher among Indigenous Australians (5.2%-26.5%) compared to non-Indigenous Australians (1.7%). While Australia has collated reliable estimates of the eye health burden owing to T2DM in its Indigenous population, there is fragmentation of existing data and limited knowledge on the underlying risk factors. Taking a systems approach that investigates the social, environmental, clinical, biological and genetic risk factors, and-importantly-integrates these data, may give valuable insights into the most important determinants contributing to the development of diabetes-related blindness. This knowledge is a crucial initial step to reducing the human and societal impacts of blindness on Indigenous Australians, other priority populations and society at large.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5060
    Number of pages6
    JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
    Issue number24
    Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2019

    Bibliographical note

    ©2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open accessarticle distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution(CC BY) license (


    • blindness
    • diabetes
    • diabetic retinopathy
    • equity
    • eye health
    • Indigenous Australians
    • inequality
    • vision impairment
    • vision loss
    • Diabetic retinopathy
    • Vision impairment
    • Equity
    • Vision loss
    • Blindness
    • Diabetes
    • Eye health
    • Inequality


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